CHHE has begun working with academic and community partners to address GenX and other contaminants in the Cape Fear River and drinking water supplies near Wilmington, NC. GenX, and similar perfluorinated compounds, is not necessarily new to the Cape Fear River, but elevated levels of the contaminate recent gained widespread public attention and concern.

Existing Research

The published literature on GenX is not very extensive yet. Here are the existing publications:

Authors Date Title
Gannon et al. 2016 Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and kinetics of 2,3,3,3- tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid ammonium salt following a single dose in rat, mouse, and cynomolgus monkey
Gebbink et al. 2017 Presence of Emerging Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in River and Drinking Water near a Fluorochemical Production Plant in the Netherlands
Gomis et al. 2015 A modeling assessment of the physicochemical properties and environmental fate of emerging and novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
Heydebreck et al. 2015 Alternative and Legacy Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Differences between European and Chinese River/Estuary Systems
Hoke et al. 2016 Aquatic hazard, bioaccumulation and screening risk assessment for ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate
Rae et al. 2015 Evaluation of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate in Sprague-Dawley rats
Rushing et al. 2017 Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Effects of 2,3,3,3- Tetrafluoro-2-(Heptafluoropropoxy)-Propanoate in C57BL/6 Mice
Sheng et al. 2017 Cytotoxicity of novel fluorinated alternatives to long‑chain perfluoroalkyl substances to human liver cell line and their binding capacity to human liver fatty acid binding protein
Strynar et al. 2015 Identification of Novel Perfluoroalkyl Ether Carboxylic Acids (PFECAs) and Sulfonic Acids (PFESAs) in Natural Waters Using Accurate Mass Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS)
Sun et al. 2016 Legacy and emerging perfluoroalkyl substances are important drinking water contaminants in the Cape Fear River Watershed of North Carolina
Wang et al. 2016 RNA‐sequencing analysis reveals the hepatotoxic mechanism of perfluoroalkyl alternatives, HFPO2 and HFPO4, following exposure in mice
Wang et al. 2017 A never-ending story of per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)?


The GenX Exposure Study

CHHE researchers recently received funding through a “time-sensitive” R21 proposal to NIEHS to better understand human exposures to GenX in Wilmington, NC and surrounding areas. Though not involved in the research itself, the COEC is supporting community engagement, science communication, and research dissemination efforts.